A systematic review and meta-analysis
Daniel R. Bonanno, Karl B. Landorf, Shannon E. Munteanu, George S. Murley, and Hylton B. Menz. La Trobe University (2017), Bonanno DR, et al. Br J Sports Med 2017;51:86–96.
Foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles are commonly used for the prevention and management of many musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremity. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the literature and apply meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles for the prevention of musculoskeletal injury. A total of 18 clinical trials were included in this systematic review, with 11 randomised trials evaluating foot orthoses and 7 trials (randomised and quasirandomised) evaluating shock-absorbing insoles. Meta-analysis found foot orthoses provide a 28% reduction in the risk of developing an overall injury and a 41% reduction in the risk of developing a lower limb stress fracture, but foot orthoses were not found to reduce the risk of developing a soft-tissue injury. Shock-absorbing insoles were not found to be effective for the prevention of any type of injury.